How the internet was Created?

The Internet has opened doors to a whole new world within the world we live in. It is a world with endless creativity and innovation. It has eradicated all boundaries and not just brought people closer but also created ever-increasing business opportunities for entrepreneurs and business owners. Fast and reliable providers like Spectrum internet have improved the quality of life by allowing a seamless online experience to the users so they can carry out all their online activities. There is no single person that came up with the invention of the internet we use today. There is a list of various people who made their contributions and played their part to turn it in a reality we see today. So without further ado, let’s have a look at how the internet came into existence:

Where did the Idea Come?

The person behind the initial concept of the internet was Leonard Kleinrock and it all started with his first paper named ‘Information Flow in Large Communication Nets’ back in 1961. The next year, Licklider gave his idea of a galactic network. Robert Taylor introduced his idea of a network that became ARPANET later.

The Process of Creation

The development of the internet started during the 1960s in the United States when Network Working Group begins its first meeting by Elmir Shapiro along with Steve CARR, Jeff Rulifson, and Ron Stoughton, at the Stanford Research Institute. Problems related to approaching hosts to communicate were discussed.

A report was released named ‘A Study of Computer Network Design Parameters’ that was based on the early findings of many intellectual minds like Paul Baran and other people. Later on, IMP or Interface Message Processor specifications were proposed and BBN was given the contract to create the IMP network.

Then a press conference was arranged by the University of California, Los Angeles, to introduce the internet to the public in July 1969.

First Network Switch

The first network equipment called the Interface Message Processor was received by UCLA. Then on 2nd September 1969 marked the day when the first data moves from UCLA hast to the switch.

Introduction of Email

The person to send the first mail back in 1971 was Ray Tomlinson. This was the beginning of the first system to send messages to others through a network.

TCP

Vinton Cerf along with Robert Kahn also has a central role in the invention of the internet. They are known to have designed the transmission control protocol or TCP in 1973. This eventually led to the commercial version of ARPANET, called Telenet in 1974 and was indeed the first internet service provider.

Ethernet and Modem

In 1973, the concept of Ethernet was first introduced by Bob Metcalfe.

Another important breakthrough in the invention of the internet was the release of 80-103A modem by Dennis Hayes and Dale Heatherington in 1977. The modem instantly became popular among people and became a part of their homes to connect to the internet.

TCP/IP launched

TCP was converted into TCP/IP to cater to real-time traffic, initiated by Danny Cohen, John Shoch, and David Reed. It remains the primary protocol for the internet.

DNS

DNS was introduced by Paul Mockapetris and John Postel, in 1984. The first domain name was symbolics.com, which was registered in March 1985 by a company named Symbolics.

Introduction of First Dial-Up ISP

The World was the first commercially launched internet service provider in the US.

HTML and www

One of the biggest contributions towards the creation of the modern internet was HTML by Tim Berners-Lee, in 1990. He created the first-ever website that was info.cern.ch.

www or the World Wide Web was introduced by Tim Berners-Lee which is what we call the internet today as it consists of a series of websites and pages linked together. The standards and technologies of the internet were modified by several people over time, in a quest to make it a seamless reality as we witness today. It will not be wrong to say that without the creation of www, the internet might not have existed how we see it today.

Wrapping Up

The aforementioned discussion briefly summarizes the long journey of the creation of the internet from a hypothetical idea to an existing reality. Over the past two decades, the internet has undergone many changes, and technological advancements aimed to improve its efficiency and convenience for the users. The main events that played a key role in the invention of the internet are mentioned above. Without these innovative ideas and arduous efforts of several engineers and genius minds, we might not have been able to enjoy the perks of the internet. The use of the internet has penetrated almost every professional sector, be it institutes, offices, banks, industries, and whatnot. It is also interesting to know that the internet is still on the journey of change and continues to evolve in order to bring forth better functionality, speed, reliability, security, and convenience to the users and shaping newer platforms in business, educational, economic, and public services.

5 Cool Jobs Created By the Cannabis Boom


You may be a marijuana critic, but one undeniable fact is that the substance does have several benefits. Whether it is the medicinal or recreational marijuana, the benefits are clear, and it should be a debate based on the risk-benefit ratio. Several states have realized the importance of marijuana leading to its legalization. Such countries now enjoy economic benefits associated with the industry projected to hit $13.3 billion in the US in 2020. Pot can be a source of employment as well as revenue. Here are the lucrative job created by the marijuana boom

  • Cultivation director

Marijuana is one cash crop with handsome returns that should be commercialized. Even though it is called weed, hemp requires specific conditions to grow optimally and give good produce. You have to carry out tillage practices and proper harvesting to ensure you get a bumper harvest. As such, large scale farming of cannabis will need a horticulturist to provide direction on the appropriate farming techniques. Besides, the director of cultivation should have managerial qualities since this is an intensive investment. The head grower will be responsible for planting, harvesting and monitoring the farm. This is a well-paying job in the states where medical marijuana is legal. Several companies are hiring qualified persons to take up this position.

  • Marketing jobs

Marketing is a crucial strategy in any business. You have to get your products in the market and make people believe that they are the best. The development of legal status in marijuana use has created a job for marijuana marketing agencies that seek to publicize the products. With the services of a good agency, you can be assured of better returns.

  • Cannabis extraction technician

The required person for this job should be knowledgeable in botany and chemistry extraction methods. High level of expertise is required to ensure the extraction of high-quality marijuana. The individual should be able to distinguish the different species of cannabis from the look. They use solvent extraction techniques to obtain the active ingredient in Cannabis; THC. After extraction, the specialist will do quality control by determining potency and concentrations. An extraction scientist working in the marijuana industry can earn up to $125,000 annually.

  • Consultant

There is much information that is still unclear about marijuana use both for recreation and medical purposes. You can take up this opportunity by specializing in the field and delivering valid information about the product. Answering peoples questions about using marijuana will earn you employment in hospitals or a private clinic. Knowing the state laws coupled with marijuana knowledge will make you a six-figure salary without many struggles.  Business owners will also form part of your client base if you work in private practice.

  • Dispensary manager/Budtender

Marijuana shops are mushrooming all over in states that have legalized its use. One of the regulations requires that they have an officer in charge of the operations. You can take up a job as a chief operating officer or a chief financial officer in the shop and get fortunes overturned with a retirement benefit at the end of your tenure. The dispensary manager is responsible for overseeing cultivation processes, accounting services as well as other managerial roles in the company. Certified public accountants are preferred candidates in the business.

Blu-ray Review “Frankenstein Created Woman”

Starring: Peter Cushing, Susan Denberg, Thorley Walters, Duncan Lamont, Barry Warren
Director: Terence Fisher
Rated: Unrated
Studio: Millennium/Hammer
DVD Release Date: January 28, 2014
Run Time: 92 minutes

Film: 3.5 out of 5 stars
Extras: 3.5 out of 5 stars

Personally, when I think about Peter Cushing, I think about him as Baron Frankenstein. He became well-known for playing that role through six films spanning from late 1950’s through the 1970’s under Hammer Studios. “Frankenstein Created Woman” is the fourth film in Hammer’s Frankenstein series. The film is such a classic and thanks to Millennium Films, the film is getting Blu-ray treatment for the first time ever. They have big proprietor of Hammer Films and I hope that this trend continues because it great to see classics like this get the spotlight again. A must have for any true horror fan!

Official Premise: A tormented girl (Susan Denberg) drowns herself after her lover is framed for her father s murder and guillotined. Baron Frankenstein (Peter Cushing), experimenting with the transfer of souls, places her lover s soul into her body, bringing Christina back to life. With no memories of her past life, she becomes driven by a ghostly revenge and carries out a violent retribution on those responsible for both deaths.

It is crazy to this that this film is nearly 50 years old…but it is true. Millennium delivered a solid 1080p transfer. It is clean and really sharp looking. I thought it really packed a visual punch. The same goes for the DTS-HD Master Audio 5.1 track, which really captures the essence of what a Hammer film should sound like.  This Collector’s Edition Blu-ray also includes limited edition exclusive collectible cards. They are basically smaller reproduced lobby cards for the film and a must have for any collector.

In terms of special features, this release scores again. There is a fantastic audio commentary track with Derek Fowlds (“Johann”), Robert Morris (“Hans”) and Jonathan Rigby (Hammer Historian). There is also a brand new documentary called “Hammer Glamour”. This is a must watch for any Hammer fan. There are also two “World of Hammer” episodes included. The first is “The Curse of Frankenstein” and “Hammer Stars: Peter Cushing”. Great extras. Lastly, there is an Animated Stills Gallery and trailer included.