Liberal America and the Third World: Political Development Ideas in Foreign Aid and Social Science

Two hundred years ago, in the era of Enlightenment, liberalism became a pinnacle, which promised a bright future. Indeed, in the last decades, liberalism began to turn into political practice, which, adopting free-market principles and globalization, political correctness and tolerance, brings prosperity to most citizens.

Third world countries

Traditionally, the world has long been divided into groups of countries. There are first world, second world, and third world countries.

First world countries are considered the most educated, civilized, cultural countries in which everything is streamlined, with rapid development of technology. In context of education, you are encouraged to take a look at this link to learn about secrets behind world’s most mysterious books.

Second world countries are those where there is some central planning in cities, but there is often no novelty and luxury. The population is not always well educated but it is quite clever and savvy having access to some basic blessings of civilization like water, light, and communication means.

Third world countries include a huge number of countries, which are highly diverse in principle. They are united by primitiveness and sluggishness of a local population (a hallmark of such countries is to shout “hello” at the sight of a foreigner and poke fingers at them, which is not accepted in first and second worlds). Citizens have quite undeveloped communication, technical, and even writing or reading skills, which they use for their work in coursework writing service. Villages are often characterized by medieval poverty and primitivism, and cities are chaotic with clogged sellers sidewalks, dirty yards, and crowded streets. Education and economic growth in such countries are often a problem.

Foreign aid of the US toward third world countries

A foreign aid is an official policy of the United States carried out through channels of international organizations and on a bilateral basis, with a view to promoting an economic and political development of Third World countries based on America’s socio-economic and political model.

Its concept appeared at stage of a collapse of colonial empires and acquisition of independence by Asia and Africa. America as a whole supported the aim of newly independent states for development, hoping to prevent a spread of communist ideology in Third World with their help.

The second task of liberal America’s policy of foreign aid was to adjust an evolution of Third World countries according to American models, which should guarantee political conflict-free relations in America’s cooperation with developing states, and also ensure the political and economic dominance of developed countries in the world.

The foreign aid is provided to Third World countries in different forms, but conceptually, such aid programs funded by America are based on priorities formulated by the development theory. Today such priorities include ensuring the rule of law, promoting the democratic development of society, creating a small private sector, ensuring basic needs of the population.

The American development theory originated in framework of not economic, but political science and, at the initial stage, was based on concepts of social transformation. The developmental theory was based on paradigm of social evolution of classical sociology, the movement of society in its development from simple to complex, higher forms. The theory of development proceeds from recognition of America as the highest form of development. Direction of movement toward American models was formulated differently by different authors: movement from status to contract (G. Main), a transition from traditional power forms to rational bureaucracy (M. Weber), progress from mechanical to organic solidarity (E. Durkheim ).

All modern programs of foreign aid are, to some degree, aimed at resolving political tasks: spreading democracy, improving governance, developing civil society, fighting corruption, and so on.

Characteristic in this regard is an activity of American Millennium Challenge Corporation, established in 2004. The strategy for new state corporation was formulated as “the combination of a more meaningful contribution by developed states to greater responsibility of developing states.”

MCC provides economic and social aid to developing countries in form of grants, provided that they demonstrate desire for economic growth. Namely, openness to foreign investment, rule of law, inviolability of private property, improve a system of public administration, win or substantially reduce corruption, help for needs of the population, not the elite.

Official MCC documents state that corporation is a strategically important lever for spreading “soft power” of the United States and should be viewed as an important tool of US foreign policy. Program is built in such a way that local elites are faced with a choice: either not to get help, or to adjust their domestic policies. In 2009, current US president provided the corporation with 2.2 billion dollars. To date, 14 countries have used the corporation’s grants, including Armenia and Mongolia, for a total of $ 4.5 billion.